By Wojtek Mackiewicz Wolfe
Throughout heritage and particularly in the course of modern instances, presidential rhetoric units the international coverage tone not just for Congress yet typically for the yankee public. hence, US international coverage is actively advertised and spun to the yankee public. This e-book describes the selling technique of the conflict on Terror and the way that approach forced public opinion in the direction of aiding the unfold of the struggle on Terror from Afghanistan to Iraq. the writer investigates how President George W. Bush's preliminary framing of the September eleventh assaults supplied the platform for the construction of long-term public help for the struggle on Terror and confirmed early public help for U.S. motion in Iraq.
Mining public opinion info and approximately 1500 presidential speeches over a 4 yr interval, the e-book argues that presidential framing of threats and losses, now not profits, contributed to public aid for warfare in Afghanistan, struggle in Iraq, and President Bush's profitable reelection crusade. President Bush's preliminary framing of the terrorist danger was once brought instantly after the September eleventh assaults and bolstered during the Afghanistan invasion. in this period of time, presidential hazard framing confirmed the vast parameters for the warfare on Terror and enabled the president to effectively industry a punitive battle in Afghanistan. moment, the president advertised the tactic of preemptive warfare and led the rustic into the extra high priced warfare in Iraq via targeting the possibly worldwide hazard of terrorism and the proliferation of guns of Mass Destruction. President Bush's past struggle rhetoric was once repackaged right into a leaner, extra centred layout during which the Iraq battle grew to become a part of the warfare on Terror, leading to elevated help for the president and a winning reelection crusade. ultimately, the writer examines the withdraw vs. surge in Iraq debate bringing the ebook brand new. The ebook indicates the influencing strength of presidential spin and of dicy overseas coverage within the heart East, and provides a scientific research of ways a president successfully pursued a business plan that maintains to teach a permanent skill to persuade public help. Even years after the Iraq invasion, fifty two% of usa citizens believed that the U.S. should still remain in Iraq until eventually it truly is stabilized. This discovering bypasses schedule surroundings factors, which prescribes factor salience among the general public for just one 12 months. the massive speech database to be had with the examine can be an additional benefit to students trying to educate undergraduate and graduate point qualitative learn methods.
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Extra info for Winning the War of Words: Selling the War on Terror from Afghanistan to Iraq
Realists focus on causes of war as exogenous while liberalists focus on domestic sources of foreign policy making. Neither camp opens the “black box” and looks at how leaders proceed in selling their policies to an audience that will eventually decide whether or not to reelect their national leaders. With respect to presidential influence, this study refers to the more commonly recognized notion of agenda setting as political marketing. While presidential agenda setting is a well-established concept in political science literature, it seems that political marketing may be a more appropriate description for these cases, as marketing behavior implies the successful selling of a product.
39 However, his study illustrates how the public places responsibility on institutions for issue domains such as terrorism and avoids discussion of the public’s risk propensity to support such issues. The field of risk communication provides some applicable material to researching perceptions of risk but for two problems: much of the research does not apply to the political arena, and nearly none of the literature covers risk communication and framing within a single study. The only applicable study covers information regarding gain and loss framing, which mirrors data found in prospect theory research.
1 Such a shift required calculated and effective marketing of changes from the status quo. The most accessible and broadly available form of political marketing continues to be in the form of public speeches, which provide empirical indicators of marketing attempts. This case will show the early evolution of how President George W. Bush used public rhetoric and framed foreign policy in an attempt to alter the public’s domain and gain support for aggressive foreign policy changes. Each empirical chapter in this study chronologically follows the president’s public rhetoric, highlighting each timeframe’s significant events, changes in rhetoric, and public opinion data.