By Kabir Chakraborty, Abhijit Chakrabarti

This booklet makes a speciality of delicate computing recommendations for boosting voltage safety in electricity networks. synthetic neural networks (ANNs) were selected as a tender computing device, considering the fact that such networks are eminently appropriate for the research of voltage safety. different architectures of the ANNs utilized in this publication are chosen at the foundation of clever standards instead of by means of a “brute strength” approach to trial and mistake. the elemental goal of this booklet is to give a complete treatise on strength approach protection and the simulation of energy procedure safeguard. The middle suggestions are substantiated via appropriate illustrations and computing device equipment. The publication describes analytical elements of operation and features of energy structures from the perspective of voltage safety. The textual content is self-contained and thorough. it's meant for senior undergraduate scholars and postgraduate scholars in electric engineering. practising engineers, electric regulate heart (ECC) operators and researchers also will locate the ebook useful.

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**Extra info for Soft Computing Techniques in Voltage Security Analysis**

**Sample text**

To fulfill some specific conditions of load and generation, the iterative techniques are used to update the voltage magnitudes and phase angles. When the power mismatches, P and Q for all PV and PQ buses of an electrical power network are reduced to a value less than a particular tolerance value then the iterative cycle is ended, which implies that those specific conditions are fulfilled. Power flow calculations usually employ iterative methods such as (i) Gauss-Seidel (G–S) Method, (ii) Newton–Raphson (N–R) method, and (iii) Fast Decoupled Load Flow (FDLF ) method.

Once Qgi violates any of the limits, δi and Vi of that ith bus become variables. 33) j=1 j=1 This equation may be expressed in the following form also: N Pi − jQi = Vi∗ Yii Vi + Vi∗ Yij Vj , for i = 2, 3, . . , N j=1 j�=i or Vi = N � 1 Pi − jQi − Yij Vj ∗ , Yii Vi j=1 j�=i for i = 2, 3, . . 34) 2 Load Flow Studies 34 In the power flow study, it is essential to solve a set of nonlinear equations for two unknown variables for every bus. 35) j=1 Vi j� = i k+1 Vi = , for i = 2, 3, .

2 .. . .. � .. .. . �� . � . 50) Or, in short form �P �Q = [J] �δ �|V | where [J] is known as Jacobian Matrix. 58) If m buses of the system are voltage-controlled, then there are (N − 1) number of buses with real power constraints and (N − 1 − m) number of buses with reactive power constraints, and the Jacobian matrix is of order [2(N − 1) − m] × [2(N − 1) − m] and order of the submatrices are given as follows: 1. J1 is of the order of [N − 1] × [N − 1], 2. J2 is the order of [N − 1] × [N − 1 − m], 3.