Metric Driven Design Verification: An Engineer's and by Hamilton B. Carter

By Hamilton B. Carter

Exponentially expanding layout complexity has necessitated the adoption of metric pushed making plans and undertaking administration. Metric pushed layout Verification presents the semiconductor s first metric pushed established method of useful verification. A metric established move is defined that makes a speciality of the 4 steps of:1. making plans: Defining what should be performed and the instantly trackable metrics that would be used to degree progress.2. Execution: imposing verification environments after which broadly exercise the machine less than verification using complete, vastly parallel regression strategies.3. dimension: instantly taking pictures the metrics outlined in making plans to supply goal info with which to regulate the verification undertaking. customized tailoring these metrics via an automatic reporting framework to supply all stakeholders a real-time significant view of undertaking status.4. reaction: using the lower back metrics to successfully adapt to altering venture stipulations. utilising automatic reaction mechanisms to automate engineering processed and administration reaction to streamline undertaking administration processes.The basic viewers for this ebook is expert engineers, managers, and managers. it's written in an simply comprehensible kind and involves 4 components. the 1st 3 components are adapted for executives, engineering managers, and engineers respectively. The fourth half offers case experiences and commentaries from luminaries and specialists on metric pushed verification.Metric pushed layout Verification brings jointly the simplest practices and real-life stories of numerous top digital businesses around the world in making plans and coping with verification initiatives, whereas automating severe methods. It addresses all facets of verification and summarizes the various strategies on hand to engineers, managers and bosses.

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Half I Semiconductor units and easy purposes 1 --
Chapter 1 Semiconductor fabrics and Diodes three --
1. 1 Semiconductor fabrics and houses four --
1. 1. 1 Intrinsic Semiconductors four --
1. 1. 2 Extrinsic Semiconductors 7 --
1. 1. three glide and Diffusion Currents nine --
1. 1. four extra companies eleven --
1. 2 The pn Junction 12 --
1. 2. 1 The Equilibrium pn Junction 12 --
1. 2. 2 Reverse-Biased pn Junction 14 --
1. 2. three Forward-Biased pn Junction sixteen --
1. 2. four perfect Current-Voltage dating 17 --
1. 2. five pn Junction Diode 18 --
1. three Diode Circuits: DC research and types 23 --
1. three. 1 generation and Graphical research concepts 24 --
1. three. 2 Piecewise Linear version 27 --
1. three. three desktop Simulation and research 30 --
1. three. four precis of Diode types 31 --
1. four Diode Circuits: AC identical Circuit 31 --
1. four. 1 Sinusoidal research 31 --
1. four. 2 Small-Signal identical Circuit 35 --
1. five different Diode forms 35 --
1. five. 1 sunlight telephone 35 --
1. five. 2 Photodiode 36 --
1. five. three Light-Emitting Diode 36 --
1. five. four Schottky Barrier Diode 37 --
1. five. five Zener Diode 39 --
Chapter 2 Diode Circuits forty nine --
2. 1 Rectifier Circuits 50 --
2. 1. 1 Half-Wave Rectification 50 --
Problem-Solving approach: Diode Circuits fifty one --
2. 1. 2 Full-Wave Rectification fifty three --
2. 1. three Filters, Ripple Voltage, and Diode present fifty six --
2. 1. four Voltage Doubler Circuit sixty three --
2. 2 Zener Diode Circuits sixty four --
2. 2. 1 excellent Voltage Reference Circuit sixty four --
2. 2. 2 Zener Resistance and percentage law sixty seven --
2. three Clipper and Clamper Circuits sixty eight --
2. three. 1 Clippers sixty eight --
2. three. 2 Clampers seventy two --
2. four Multiple-Diode Circuits seventy five --
2. four. 1 instance Diode Circuits seventy five --
Problem-Solving process: a number of Diode Circuits seventy nine --
2. four. 2 Diode common sense Circuits eighty --
2. five Photodiode and LED Circuits eighty two --
2. five. 1 Photodiode Circuit eighty two --
2. five. 2 LED Circuit eighty three --
Chapter three The Bipolar Junction Transistor ninety seven --
3. 1 uncomplicated Bipolar Junction Transistor ninety seven --
3. 1. 1 Transistor buildings ninety eight --
3. 1. 2 npn Transistor: Forward-Active Mode Operation ninety nine --
3. 1. three pnp Transistor: Forward-Active Mode Operation 104 --
3. 1. four Circuit Symbols and Conventions one hundred and five --
3. 1. five Current-Voltage features 107 --
3. 1. 6 Nonideal Transistor Leakage Currents and Breakdown Voltage one hundred ten --
3. 2 DC research of Transistor Circuits 113 --
3. 2. 1 Common-Emitter Circuit 114 --
3. 2. 2 Load Line and Modes of Operation 117 --
Problem-Solving method: Bipolar DC research a hundred and twenty --
3. 2. three universal Bipolar Circuits: DC research 121 --
3. three uncomplicated Transistor purposes 131 --
3. three. 1 swap 131 --
3. three. 2 electronic common sense 133 --
3. three. three Amplifier 134 --
3. four Bipolar Transistor Biasing 138 --
3. four. 1 unmarried Base Resistor Biasing 138 --
3. four. 2 Voltage Divider Biasing and Bias balance a hundred and forty --
3. four. three built-in Circuit Biasing a hundred forty five --
3. five Multistage Circuits 147 --
Chapter four simple BJT Amplifiers 163 --
4. 1 Analog indications and Linear Amplifiers 163 --
4. 2 The Bipolar Linear Amplifier a hundred sixty five --
4. 2. 1 Graphical research and AC similar Circuit 166 --
4. 2. 2 Small-Signal Hybrid-[pi] similar Circuit of the Bipolar Transistor one hundred seventy --
Problem-Solving approach: Bipolar AC research a hundred seventy five --
4. 2. three Hybrid-[pi] similar Circuit, together with the Early impact 176 --
4. 2. four elevated Hybrid-[pi] similar Circuit one hundred eighty --
4. 2. five different Small-Signal Parameters and similar Circuits a hundred and eighty --
4. three simple Transistor Amplifier Configurations 185 --
4. four Common-Emitter Amplifiers 189 --
4. four. 1 simple Common-Emitter Amplifier Circuit one hundred ninety --
4. four. 2 Circuit with Emitter Resistor 192 --
4. four. three Circuit with Emitter-Bypass Capacitor 196 --
4. four. four complicated Common-Emitter Amplifier innovations 199 --
4. five AC Load Line research two hundred --
4. five. 1 AC Load Line 2 hundred --
4. five. 2 greatest Symmetrical Swing 203 --
Problem-Solving strategy: greatest Symmetrical Swing 204 --
4. 6 Common-Collector (Emitter-Follower) Amplifier 205 --
4. 6. 1 Small-Signal Voltage achieve 205 --
4. 6. 2 enter and Output Impedance 207 --
4. 6. three Small-Signal present achieve 209 --
4. 7 Common-Base Amplifier 214 --
4. 7. 1 Small-Signal Voltage and present profits 214 --
4. 7. 2 enter and Output Impedance 216 --
4. eight the 3 simple Amplifiers: precis and comparability 218 --
4. nine Multistage Amplifiers 219 --
4. nine. 1 Multistage research: Cascade Configuration 219 --
4. nine. 2 Cascode Configuration 223 --
4. 10 energy issues 226 --
Chapter five The Field-Effect Transistor 243 --
5. 1 MOS Field-Effect Transistor 243 --
5. 1. 1 Two-Terminal MOS constitution 244 --
5. 1. 2 n-Channel Enhancement-Mode MOSFET 246 --
5. 1. three excellent MOSFET Current-Voltage features 248 --
5. 1. four Circuit Symbols and Conventions 253 --
5. 1. five extra MOSFET constructions and Circuit Symbols 253 --
5. 1. 6 precis of Transistor Operation 258 --
5. 1. 7 Nonideal Current-Voltage features 259 --
5. 2 MOSFET DC Circuit research 262 --
5. 2. 1 Common-Source Circuit 263 --
5. 2. 2 Load Line and Modes of Operation 267 --
Problem-Solving procedure: MOSFET DC research 268 --
5. 2. three universal MOSFET Configurations: DC research 269 --
5. 2. four Constant-Current resource Biasing 281 --
5. three easy MOSFET purposes: swap, electronic common sense Gate, and Amplifier 283 --
5. three. 1 NMOS Inverter 283 --
5. three. 2 electronic common sense Gate 285 --
5. three. three MOSFET Small-Signal Amplifier 287 --
5. four Junction Field-Effect Transistor 287 --
5. four. 1 pn JFET and MESFET Operation 288 --
5. four. 2 Current-Voltage features 292 --
5. four. three universal JFET Configurations: DC research 295 --
Chapter 6 uncomplicated FET Amplifiers 313 --
6. 1 The MOSFET Amplifier 313 --
6. 1. 1 Graphical research, Load traces, and Small-Signal Parameters 314 --
6. 1. 2 Small-Signal similar Circuit 318 --
Problem-Solving procedure: MOSFET AC research 320 --
6. 1. three Modeling the physique influence 322 --
6. 2 easy Transistor Amplifier Configurations 323 --
6. three The Common-Source Amplifier 324 --
6. three. 1 A uncomplicated Common-Source Configuration 324 --
6. three. 2 Common-Source Amplifier with resource Resistor 329 --
6. three. three Common-Source Circuit with resource skip Capacitor 331 --
6. four The Source-Follower Amplifier 334 --
6. four. 1 Small-Signal Voltage achieve 334 --
6. four. 2 enter and Output Impedance 339 --
6. five The Common-Gate Configuration 341 --
6. five. 1 Small-Signal Voltage and present earnings 341 --
6. five. 2 enter and Output Impedance 343 --
6. 6 the 3 uncomplicated Amplifier Configurations: precis and comparability 345 --
6. 7 Single-Stage built-in Circuit MOSFET Amplifiers 345 --
6. 7. 1 NMOS Amplifier with Enhancement Load 345 --
6. 7. 2 NMOS Amplifier with Depletion Load 350 --
6. 7. three NMOS Amplifier with PMOS Load 353 --
6. eight Multistage Amplifiers 355 --
6. eight. 1 DC research 356 --
6. eight. 2 Small-Signal research 360 --
6. nine uncomplicated JFET Amplifiers 362 --
6. nine. 1 Small-Signal similar Circuit 362 --
6. nine. 2 Small-Signal research 364 --
Chapter 7 Frequency reaction 383 --
7. 1 Amplifier Frequency reaction 384 --
7. 1. 1 identical Circuits 384 --
7. 1. 2 Frequency reaction research 385 --
7. 2 approach move services 386 --
7. 2. 1 s-Domain research 386 --
7. 2. 2 First-Order services 388 --
7. 2. three Bode Plots 388 --
7. 2. four Short-Circuit and Open-Circuit Time Constants 394 --
7. three Frequency reaction: Transistor Amplifiers with Circuit Capacitors 398 --
7. three. 1 Coupling Capacitor results 398 --
Problem-Solving method: Bode Plot of achieve significance 404 --
7. three. 2 Load Capacitor results 405 --
7. three. three Coupling and cargo Capacitors 407 --
7. three. four skip Capacitor results 410 --
7. three. five mixed results: Coupling and pass Capacitors 414 --
7. four Frequency reaction: Bipolar Transistor 416 --
7. four. 1 improved Hybrid-[pi] identical Circuit 416 --
7. four. 2 Short-Circuit present achieve 418 --
7. four. three Cutoff Frequency 420 --
7. four. four Miller influence and Miller Capacitance 422 --
7. five Frequency reaction: The FET 426 --
7. five. 1 High-Frequency similar Circuit 426 --
7. five. 2 Unity-Gain Bandwidth 428 --
7. five. three Miller impact and Miller Capacitance 431 --
7. 6 High-Frequency reaction of Transistor Circuits 433 --
7. 6. 1 Common-Emitter and Common-Source Circuits 433 --
7. 6. 2 Common-Base, Common-Gate, and Cascode Circuits 436 --
7. 6. three Emitter- and Source-Follower Circuits 444 --
7. 6. four High-Frequency Amplifier layout 448 --
Chapter eight Output levels and gear Amplifiers 469 --
8. 1 strength Amplifiers 469 --
8. 2 energy Transistors 470 --
8. 2. 1 strength BJTs 470 --
8. 2. 2 energy MOSFETs 474 --
8. 2. three warmth Sinks 477 --
8. three periods of Amplifiers 480 --
8. three. 1 Class-A Operation 481 --
8. three. 2 Class-B Operation 484 --
8. three. three Class-AB Operation 489 --
8. three. four Class-C Operation 493 --
8. four Class-A strength Amplifiers 494 --
8. four. 1 Inductively Coupled Amplifier 494 --
8. four. 2 Transformer-Coupled Common-Emitter Amplifier 495 --
8. four. three Transformer-Coupled Emitter-Follower Amplifier 497 --
8. five Class-AB Push-Pull Complementary Output phases 499 --
8. five. 1 Class-AB Output degree with Diode Biasing 499 --
8. five. 2 Class-AB Biasing utilizing the V[subscript BE] Multiplier 501 --
8. five. three Class-AB Output level with enter Buffer Transistors 504 --
8. five. four Class-AB Output level using the Darlington Configuration 507 --
Part II Analog Electronics 519 --
Chapter nine the suitable Operational Amplifier 521 --
9. 1 The Operational Amplifier 521 --
9. 1. 1 excellent Parameters 522 --
9. 1. 2 improvement of the fitting Parameters 523 --
9. 1. three research process 525 --
9. 1. four PSpice Modeling 526 --
9. 2 Inverting Amplifier 526 --
9. 2. 1 simple Amplifier 527 --
Problem-Solving method: excellent Op-Amp Circuits 529 --
9. 2. 2 Amplifier with a T-Network 530 --
9. 2. three impact of Finite achieve 532 --
9. three Summing Amplifier 534 --
9. four Noninverting Amplifier 536 --
9. four. 1 uncomplicated Amplifier 536 --
9. four. 2 Voltage Follower 537

Additional resources for Metric Driven Design Verification: An Engineer's and Executive's Guide to First Pass Success

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This small amount of effort early in the project will enable all the gains discussed throughout the remainder of the book. 2 Automated Metric-Driven Processes 29 What Are Metrics For? Knowledge is power! Our metrics will increase the power of the project team in several ways. First, metrics give the team the chance to react to dynamic requirements changes. As resources and requirements change, subsequent changes in measured metrics allow us to detect and react to these changes. Second, as illustrated above, metrics can be used to completely automate some processes.

For an in-depth explanation of the planning phase see Part II. Execution During the planning session, we captured every concern and corresponding metric in an execuP table verification plan. In the execution phase, we’ll execute on those plans. There are two types R E of execution: implementation execution and verification engine execution. Implementation execuM tion refers to the efforts made by engineers on the project team to implement environments that will run on the verification engines. Engine execution refers to the actual runs of the verification environments produced by the engineers.

The important thing to note for our work is that even the executive should be able to view an appropriate set of aggregate metrics from every design project. At the executive level, the metric of most interest and importance is the completion status of the project. There are three main components of completion status. They are: • • • Implementation completion Verification coverage Activity indicators Implementation Completion The implementation completion metric is a measure of how much of the planned work is implemented.

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