Lab-on-a-chip: Techniques, Circuits, and Biomedical by Yehya H. Ghallab

By Yehya H. Ghallab

Here is a groundbreaking publication that introduces and discusses the $64000 facets of lab-on-a-chip, together with the sensible ideas, circuits, microsystems, and key purposes within the biomedical, biology, and existence technological know-how fields. additionally, this quantity covers ongoing examine in lab-on-a-chip integration and electrical box imaging. offered in a transparent and logical demeanour, the publication offers the elemental underpinnings of lab-on-a-chip, offers sensible effects, and brings readers modern with cutting-edge learn within the box. This particular source is supported with over one hundred sixty illustrations that make clear very important issues all through.

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Half I Semiconductor units and easy purposes 1 --
Chapter 1 Semiconductor fabrics and Diodes three --
1. 1 Semiconductor fabrics and homes four --
1. 1. 1 Intrinsic Semiconductors four --
1. 1. 2 Extrinsic Semiconductors 7 --
1. 1. three waft and Diffusion Currents nine --
1. 1. four extra companies eleven --
1. 2 The pn Junction 12 --
1. 2. 1 The Equilibrium pn Junction 12 --
1. 2. 2 Reverse-Biased pn Junction 14 --
1. 2. three Forward-Biased pn Junction sixteen --
1. 2. four excellent Current-Voltage dating 17 --
1. 2. five pn Junction Diode 18 --
1. three Diode Circuits: DC research and types 23 --
1. three. 1 new release and Graphical research concepts 24 --
1. three. 2 Piecewise Linear version 27 --
1. three. three machine Simulation and research 30 --
1. three. four precis of Diode versions 31 --
1. four Diode Circuits: AC an identical Circuit 31 --
1. four. 1 Sinusoidal research 31 --
1. four. 2 Small-Signal identical Circuit 35 --
1. five different Diode varieties 35 --
1. five. 1 sunlight mobilephone 35 --
1. five. 2 Photodiode 36 --
1. five. three Light-Emitting Diode 36 --
1. five. four Schottky Barrier Diode 37 --
1. five. five Zener Diode 39 --
Chapter 2 Diode Circuits forty nine --
2. 1 Rectifier Circuits 50 --
2. 1. 1 Half-Wave Rectification 50 --
Problem-Solving process: Diode Circuits fifty one --
2. 1. 2 Full-Wave Rectification fifty three --
2. 1. three Filters, Ripple Voltage, and Diode present fifty six --
2. 1. four Voltage Doubler Circuit sixty three --
2. 2 Zener Diode Circuits sixty four --
2. 2. 1 excellent Voltage Reference Circuit sixty four --
2. 2. 2 Zener Resistance and percentage legislation sixty seven --
2. three Clipper and Clamper Circuits sixty eight --
2. three. 1 Clippers sixty eight --
2. three. 2 Clampers seventy two --
2. four Multiple-Diode Circuits seventy five --
2. four. 1 instance Diode Circuits seventy five --
Problem-Solving procedure: a number of Diode Circuits seventy nine --
2. four. 2 Diode common sense Circuits eighty --
2. five Photodiode and LED Circuits eighty two --
2. five. 1 Photodiode Circuit eighty two --
2. five. 2 LED Circuit eighty three --
Chapter three The Bipolar Junction Transistor ninety seven --
3. 1 easy Bipolar Junction Transistor ninety seven --
3. 1. 1 Transistor constructions ninety eight --
3. 1. 2 npn Transistor: Forward-Active Mode Operation ninety nine --
3. 1. three pnp Transistor: Forward-Active Mode Operation 104 --
3. 1. four Circuit Symbols and Conventions one zero five --
3. 1. five Current-Voltage features 107 --
3. 1. 6 Nonideal Transistor Leakage Currents and Breakdown Voltage one hundred ten --
3. 2 DC research of Transistor Circuits 113 --
3. 2. 1 Common-Emitter Circuit 114 --
3. 2. 2 Load Line and Modes of Operation 117 --
Problem-Solving strategy: Bipolar DC research one hundred twenty --
3. 2. three universal Bipolar Circuits: DC research 121 --
3. three uncomplicated Transistor functions 131 --
3. three. 1 change 131 --
3. three. 2 electronic good judgment 133 --
3. three. three Amplifier 134 --
3. four Bipolar Transistor Biasing 138 --
3. four. 1 unmarried Base Resistor Biasing 138 --
3. four. 2 Voltage Divider Biasing and Bias balance one hundred forty --
3. four. three built-in Circuit Biasing one hundred forty five --
3. five Multistage Circuits 147 --
Chapter four uncomplicated BJT Amplifiers 163 --
4. 1 Analog signs and Linear Amplifiers 163 --
4. 2 The Bipolar Linear Amplifier one hundred sixty five --
4. 2. 1 Graphical research and AC identical Circuit 166 --
4. 2. 2 Small-Signal Hybrid-[pi] an identical Circuit of the Bipolar Transistor one hundred seventy --
Problem-Solving approach: Bipolar AC research a hundred seventy five --
4. 2. three Hybrid-[pi] identical Circuit, together with the Early impression 176 --
4. 2. four extended Hybrid-[pi] identical Circuit a hundred and eighty --
4. 2. five different Small-Signal Parameters and an identical Circuits a hundred and eighty --
4. three uncomplicated Transistor Amplifier Configurations 185 --
4. four Common-Emitter Amplifiers 189 --
4. four. 1 easy Common-Emitter Amplifier Circuit a hundred ninety --
4. four. 2 Circuit with Emitter Resistor 192 --
4. four. three Circuit with Emitter-Bypass Capacitor 196 --
4. four. four complex Common-Emitter Amplifier ideas 199 --
4. five AC Load Line research 2 hundred --
4. five. 1 AC Load Line two hundred --
4. five. 2 greatest Symmetrical Swing 203 --
Problem-Solving procedure: greatest Symmetrical Swing 204 --
4. 6 Common-Collector (Emitter-Follower) Amplifier 205 --
4. 6. 1 Small-Signal Voltage achieve 205 --
4. 6. 2 enter and Output Impedance 207 --
4. 6. three Small-Signal present achieve 209 --
4. 7 Common-Base Amplifier 214 --
4. 7. 1 Small-Signal Voltage and present profits 214 --
4. 7. 2 enter and Output Impedance 216 --
4. eight the 3 easy Amplifiers: precis and comparability 218 --
4. nine Multistage Amplifiers 219 --
4. nine. 1 Multistage research: Cascade Configuration 219 --
4. nine. 2 Cascode Configuration 223 --
4. 10 strength concerns 226 --
Chapter five The Field-Effect Transistor 243 --
5. 1 MOS Field-Effect Transistor 243 --
5. 1. 1 Two-Terminal MOS constitution 244 --
5. 1. 2 n-Channel Enhancement-Mode MOSFET 246 --
5. 1. three perfect MOSFET Current-Voltage features 248 --
5. 1. four Circuit Symbols and Conventions 253 --
5. 1. five extra MOSFET constructions and Circuit Symbols 253 --
5. 1. 6 precis of Transistor Operation 258 --
5. 1. 7 Nonideal Current-Voltage features 259 --
5. 2 MOSFET DC Circuit research 262 --
5. 2. 1 Common-Source Circuit 263 --
5. 2. 2 Load Line and Modes of Operation 267 --
Problem-Solving approach: MOSFET DC research 268 --
5. 2. three universal MOSFET Configurations: DC research 269 --
5. 2. four Constant-Current resource Biasing 281 --
5. three uncomplicated MOSFET purposes: change, electronic common sense Gate, and Amplifier 283 --
5. three. 1 NMOS Inverter 283 --
5. three. 2 electronic good judgment Gate 285 --
5. three. three MOSFET Small-Signal Amplifier 287 --
5. four Junction Field-Effect Transistor 287 --
5. four. 1 pn JFET and MESFET Operation 288 --
5. four. 2 Current-Voltage features 292 --
5. four. three universal JFET Configurations: DC research 295 --
Chapter 6 easy FET Amplifiers 313 --
6. 1 The MOSFET Amplifier 313 --
6. 1. 1 Graphical research, Load strains, and Small-Signal Parameters 314 --
6. 1. 2 Small-Signal similar Circuit 318 --
Problem-Solving method: MOSFET AC research 320 --
6. 1. three Modeling the physique influence 322 --
6. 2 simple Transistor Amplifier Configurations 323 --
6. three The Common-Source Amplifier 324 --
6. three. 1 A easy Common-Source Configuration 324 --
6. three. 2 Common-Source Amplifier with resource Resistor 329 --
6. three. three Common-Source Circuit with resource pass Capacitor 331 --
6. four The Source-Follower Amplifier 334 --
6. four. 1 Small-Signal Voltage achieve 334 --
6. four. 2 enter and Output Impedance 339 --
6. five The Common-Gate Configuration 341 --
6. five. 1 Small-Signal Voltage and present earnings 341 --
6. five. 2 enter and Output Impedance 343 --
6. 6 the 3 simple Amplifier Configurations: precis and comparability 345 --
6. 7 Single-Stage built-in Circuit MOSFET Amplifiers 345 --
6. 7. 1 NMOS Amplifier with Enhancement Load 345 --
6. 7. 2 NMOS Amplifier with Depletion Load 350 --
6. 7. three NMOS Amplifier with PMOS Load 353 --
6. eight Multistage Amplifiers 355 --
6. eight. 1 DC research 356 --
6. eight. 2 Small-Signal research 360 --
6. nine uncomplicated JFET Amplifiers 362 --
6. nine. 1 Small-Signal identical Circuit 362 --
6. nine. 2 Small-Signal research 364 --
Chapter 7 Frequency reaction 383 --
7. 1 Amplifier Frequency reaction 384 --
7. 1. 1 similar Circuits 384 --
7. 1. 2 Frequency reaction research 385 --
7. 2 process move services 386 --
7. 2. 1 s-Domain research 386 --
7. 2. 2 First-Order services 388 --
7. 2. three Bode Plots 388 --
7. 2. four Short-Circuit and Open-Circuit Time Constants 394 --
7. three Frequency reaction: Transistor Amplifiers with Circuit Capacitors 398 --
7. three. 1 Coupling Capacitor results 398 --
Problem-Solving procedure: Bode Plot of achieve importance 404 --
7. three. 2 Load Capacitor results 405 --
7. three. three Coupling and cargo Capacitors 407 --
7. three. four pass Capacitor results 410 --
7. three. five mixed results: Coupling and skip Capacitors 414 --
7. four Frequency reaction: Bipolar Transistor 416 --
7. four. 1 elevated Hybrid-[pi] identical Circuit 416 --
7. four. 2 Short-Circuit present achieve 418 --
7. four. three Cutoff Frequency 420 --
7. four. four Miller impact and Miller Capacitance 422 --
7. five Frequency reaction: The FET 426 --
7. five. 1 High-Frequency similar Circuit 426 --
7. five. 2 Unity-Gain Bandwidth 428 --
7. five. three Miller influence and Miller Capacitance 431 --
7. 6 High-Frequency reaction of Transistor Circuits 433 --
7. 6. 1 Common-Emitter and Common-Source Circuits 433 --
7. 6. 2 Common-Base, Common-Gate, and Cascode Circuits 436 --
7. 6. three Emitter- and Source-Follower Circuits 444 --
7. 6. four High-Frequency Amplifier layout 448 --
Chapter eight Output levels and tool Amplifiers 469 --
8. 1 strength Amplifiers 469 --
8. 2 strength Transistors 470 --
8. 2. 1 strength BJTs 470 --
8. 2. 2 energy MOSFETs 474 --
8. 2. three warmth Sinks 477 --
8. three sessions of Amplifiers 480 --
8. three. 1 Class-A Operation 481 --
8. three. 2 Class-B Operation 484 --
8. three. three Class-AB Operation 489 --
8. three. four Class-C Operation 493 --
8. four Class-A energy Amplifiers 494 --
8. four. 1 Inductively Coupled Amplifier 494 --
8. four. 2 Transformer-Coupled Common-Emitter Amplifier 495 --
8. four. three Transformer-Coupled Emitter-Follower Amplifier 497 --
8. five Class-AB Push-Pull Complementary Output levels 499 --
8. five. 1 Class-AB Output level with Diode Biasing 499 --
8. five. 2 Class-AB Biasing utilizing the V[subscript BE] Multiplier 501 --
8. five. three Class-AB Output level with enter Buffer Transistors 504 --
8. five. four Class-AB Output level using the Darlington Configuration 507 --
Part II Analog Electronics 519 --
Chapter nine the precise Operational Amplifier 521 --
9. 1 The Operational Amplifier 521 --
9. 1. 1 excellent Parameters 522 --
9. 1. 2 improvement of the appropriate Parameters 523 --
9. 1. three research strategy 525 --
9. 1. four PSpice Modeling 526 --
9. 2 Inverting Amplifier 526 --
9. 2. 1 simple Amplifier 527 --
Problem-Solving process: excellent Op-Amp Circuits 529 --
9. 2. 2 Amplifier with a T-Network 530 --
9. 2. three impact of Finite achieve 532 --
9. three Summing Amplifier 534 --
9. four Noninverting Amplifier 536 --
9. four. 1 easy Amplifier 536 --
9. four. 2 Voltage Follower 537

Extra info for Lab-on-a-chip: Techniques, Circuits, and Biomedical Applications

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The cell interior (cytoplasm). 3. The nuclear membrane, which consists of a selectively bilayer of lipid protein molecules. The nuclear membrane serves as a two-way conduit for life-sustaining nutrients and substances required by the cell. It also passes the waste materials outside of the cell. 4. Nucleoplasm, an aqueous fluid that contains the nucleus and other structures. 3 Single-layer model. 4 Double-layer model. The wall helps provide rigidity to the cell. For example, plant tissue consists of a large numbers of these cells standing together by the wall material, which gives structural rigidity to leaves and other plant parts.

Some (such as the nucleus and Golgi apparatus) are typically solitary, while others (such as mitochondria, peroxisomes, and lysosomes) can be numerous (hundreds to thousands). The cytosol is the gelatinous fluid that fills the cell and surrounds the organelles. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Mitochondria are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria play a critical role in generating energy in the eukaryotic cell.

Another difference is that the plasma membrane resembles that of prokaryotes in function, with minor differences in the setup. Cell walls may or may not be present [18, 19]. The eukaryotic DNA is organized in one or more linear molecules, called chromosomes, which are associated with histone proteins. All chromosomal DNA is stored in the cell nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane. Some eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria also contain some DNA [20]. Many eukaryotic cells are ciliated with primary cilia.

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