Artificial Intelligence by K.D. Pavate

By K.D. Pavate

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A large science has grown up around this probabilistic concept in problem solving and is known as the Fuzzy Set Theory. B Scope and Extent y the late 1940's machines to assist man with mathematical calculations had reached an advanced stage of development. At that time many scientists began to ponder over the possibility of constructing machines which could think. They got encouragement from the developm e n t of a m a c h i n e c a l l e d ENIGMA by Alan Turing. This machine was designed during the War to decipher coded German messages.

In rule-based systems the knowledge-base can be modified by adding, deleting or changing the rules. * Understanding is also easy since the production rules are extremely readable. Frames : A frame is a method of representing objects and their relationships in the form of columns and rows. It is useful since the method envisages breaking down objects or situations i n t o their constituent parts. These parts are entered in corresponding slots in! the -'frames. The A PROBLEM SOLVER 53 slots can be further subdivided for more detailed structuring.

However, to find the optimal solution one has to traverse almost all the nodes. This is a very time-consuming method particularly when there are long branches to be searched and they do not contain the solution. Breadth-first search: The 'breadth-first' strategy is the opposite of the depthfirst method of searching. Here all the nodes at the same level are searched before proceeding to the next deeper level. The advantage of adopting the breadth-first technique is in situations where the solution is close to the surface.

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