By Michiel Steyaert, Arthur H.M. van Roermund, Johan Huijsing
Analog Circuit layout is a vital reference resource for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to maintain abreast with the most recent improvement within the box. the educational insurance additionally makes it appropriate to be used in a complicated layout path.
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This is can be seen in equation 20. Transistors M9 and M10 are switches. Transistors M7 and M8 are the cascodes above the switches. Transistors M1-M6 and inverters I1-I2 compose the drivers of the switches. 60 Fig. 14. Basic scheme of our current-steering DAC. The structure is very simple and uses no bootstrapping, no gain-boosting and no feedback. Therefore it is easier to analyze and design and it is very low power. Figure 15 shows an overview of the SFDR performance at 250 MS/s. Fig. 15. SFDR performance of the converter at 250MS/s.
37 The D/A converters The I and Q current-steering D/A converters have a 4-4 segmented architecture. An intrinsic 8 bit accuracy is guaranteed by sizing the pMOS reference transistors using the following formulas for the current accuracy. C. 5 C yield ) 2 with : x V (I ) I : the relative standard deviation of a unit current source x N :the resolution of the converter -1 x Norm : the inverse cumulative normal distribution, integrated between –x and x. 5LSB. [ A (V V ) 2 4 AVT ] V ( I ) 2 E GS T 4I ( ) I A lot of care has been spent during design and layout in order to avoid distance and side effects by using common centroid structures for the I and Q DAC.
Targets The constant envelope frequency modulation of the Bluetooth system allows several topologies to be used for the transmitter part of the chip. The most widely spread topologies are the IQ up-conversion of a low frequency signal to the channel frequency and also the direct modulation of the oscillator. The IQ up-conversion topologies can be segmented based on IF frequency and on the PLL topology. The directly frequency modulated oscillator control can be analog or digital . In order to take optimal benefit from the experience gained by a first generation Bluetooth radio, predecessor of the presented chip, and in order to have a fast time to market, the existing direct IQ up-conversion transmitter topology has been used as a starting point .