An Introduction to Philosophy through Literature by Robert C. Baldwin, James A. McPeek

By Robert C. Baldwin, James A. McPeek

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Fictive, precisely to the extent that it produces a configured relation (in Ricoeur's sense) of an elusive historical `reality'Ðbut such fictivity is to be distinguished from fictionality in the more literary sense. It is this literary kind of fictionality, the subjective experience of imaginary human beings in an imaginary human space, that correlates with narrativity since the emphasis on human experientiality can be manifested most perfectly in the ideal realm (as Aristotle knew very well). TOWARDS A `NATURAL' NARRATOLOGY 29 En définitive, ce réalisme subjectif, non objectif, est peut-être la grande force du texte, puisque, comme y insiste le narrateur de la Recherche dans Le Temps retrouvé, une littérature qui limiterait son domaine à la seule surface de la réalité n'aurait aucune raison d' être, le réel, à proprement parler, se situant au-delà de l'univers physique et de ses conditions d'existence .

TOWARDS A `NATURAL' NARRATOLOGY 19 The narrative schemata of experientiality operative in fiction also constitute an important anticipation of later historiographical attempts at reincorporating experientiality, attempts that became necessary as politics ceased to be comprehensible in terms of regal biography. Whereas fiction's solution to the problem of an adequate representation of the historical resulted in the invention of the historical novel, historiography in turn developed a novelistic historical écriture (Rigney 1990) which spawned the classic writings of nineteenth-century French, German and English historiography linked with the `great' names of Macaulay, Michelet or Ranke.

44 Whereas Barthes defines this code of accreditation as a self-reflexive baring of the text's nationality (Furst 1988:102), realism's protestations of veracity and asseverations of the norms of the real do in fact constitute such a code of accreditation and disclose the realist text to be metafictionally aware of its storification. By contrast, Barthes's effet de réel eludes the grasp of accrediting mechanisms whether of the self-reflexive or the rule-related kind, but the very positing of the realistic detail as yielding direct access to the Real in turn generates yet a third category of accreditation: that of the apparent authenticity of the afunctional, atypical and non-contrived.

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