An Introduction to Fiber Optic Systems by John P. Powers

By John P. Powers

AN advent TO FIBER OPTICS structures, 2/e, is acceptable for college students and pros. The subject matter and key aggressive virtue provided by way of the booklet is its pragmatic method of the research of fiber optics in communications. The textual content integrates assorted parts of fiber optics and gives a transparent photograph of the way they're utilized in fiber optics verbal exchange. by means of introducing the terminology utilized in fiber optics, and describing the construction blocks of an optical fiber procedure, Powers' textual content allows scholars to approach the preliminary layout of optical hyperlinks, and to appreciate the tradeoffs made in designing and utilizing a fiber optics conversation line.

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Half I Semiconductor units and uncomplicated purposes 1 --
Chapter 1 Semiconductor fabrics and Diodes three --
1. 1 Semiconductor fabrics and houses four --
1. 1. 1 Intrinsic Semiconductors four --
1. 1. 2 Extrinsic Semiconductors 7 --
1. 1. three waft and Diffusion Currents nine --
1. 1. four extra companies eleven --
1. 2 The pn Junction 12 --
1. 2. 1 The Equilibrium pn Junction 12 --
1. 2. 2 Reverse-Biased pn Junction 14 --
1. 2. three Forward-Biased pn Junction sixteen --
1. 2. four perfect Current-Voltage dating 17 --
1. 2. five pn Junction Diode 18 --
1. three Diode Circuits: DC research and types 23 --
1. three. 1 new release and Graphical research recommendations 24 --
1. three. 2 Piecewise Linear version 27 --
1. three. three desktop Simulation and research 30 --
1. three. four precis of Diode types 31 --
1. four Diode Circuits: AC similar Circuit 31 --
1. four. 1 Sinusoidal research 31 --
1. four. 2 Small-Signal identical Circuit 35 --
1. five different Diode kinds 35 --
1. five. 1 sun mobilephone 35 --
1. five. 2 Photodiode 36 --
1. five. three Light-Emitting Diode 36 --
1. five. four Schottky Barrier Diode 37 --
1. five. five Zener Diode 39 --
Chapter 2 Diode Circuits forty nine --
2. 1 Rectifier Circuits 50 --
2. 1. 1 Half-Wave Rectification 50 --
Problem-Solving approach: Diode Circuits fifty one --
2. 1. 2 Full-Wave Rectification fifty three --
2. 1. three Filters, Ripple Voltage, and Diode present fifty six --
2. 1. four Voltage Doubler Circuit sixty three --
2. 2 Zener Diode Circuits sixty four --
2. 2. 1 excellent Voltage Reference Circuit sixty four --
2. 2. 2 Zener Resistance and percentage legislation sixty seven --
2. three Clipper and Clamper Circuits sixty eight --
2. three. 1 Clippers sixty eight --
2. three. 2 Clampers seventy two --
2. four Multiple-Diode Circuits seventy five --
2. four. 1 instance Diode Circuits seventy five --
Problem-Solving method: a number of Diode Circuits seventy nine --
2. four. 2 Diode good judgment Circuits eighty --
2. five Photodiode and LED Circuits eighty two --
2. five. 1 Photodiode Circuit eighty two --
2. five. 2 LED Circuit eighty three --
Chapter three The Bipolar Junction Transistor ninety seven --
3. 1 uncomplicated Bipolar Junction Transistor ninety seven --
3. 1. 1 Transistor buildings ninety eight --
3. 1. 2 npn Transistor: Forward-Active Mode Operation ninety nine --
3. 1. three pnp Transistor: Forward-Active Mode Operation 104 --
3. 1. four Circuit Symbols and Conventions one zero five --
3. 1. five Current-Voltage features 107 --
3. 1. 6 Nonideal Transistor Leakage Currents and Breakdown Voltage a hundred and ten --
3. 2 DC research of Transistor Circuits 113 --
3. 2. 1 Common-Emitter Circuit 114 --
3. 2. 2 Load Line and Modes of Operation 117 --
Problem-Solving approach: Bipolar DC research one hundred twenty --
3. 2. three universal Bipolar Circuits: DC research 121 --
3. three simple Transistor functions 131 --
3. three. 1 swap 131 --
3. three. 2 electronic common sense 133 --
3. three. three Amplifier 134 --
3. four Bipolar Transistor Biasing 138 --
3. four. 1 unmarried Base Resistor Biasing 138 --
3. four. 2 Voltage Divider Biasing and Bias balance one hundred forty --
3. four. three built-in Circuit Biasing one hundred forty five --
3. five Multistage Circuits 147 --
Chapter four uncomplicated BJT Amplifiers 163 --
4. 1 Analog indications and Linear Amplifiers 163 --
4. 2 The Bipolar Linear Amplifier one hundred sixty five --
4. 2. 1 Graphical research and AC an identical Circuit 166 --
4. 2. 2 Small-Signal Hybrid-[pi] an identical Circuit of the Bipolar Transistor one hundred seventy --
Problem-Solving approach: Bipolar AC research a hundred seventy five --
4. 2. three Hybrid-[pi] an identical Circuit, together with the Early impact 176 --
4. 2. four improved Hybrid-[pi] identical Circuit a hundred and eighty --
4. 2. five different Small-Signal Parameters and similar Circuits one hundred eighty --
4. three simple Transistor Amplifier Configurations 185 --
4. four Common-Emitter Amplifiers 189 --
4. four. 1 easy Common-Emitter Amplifier Circuit one hundred ninety --
4. four. 2 Circuit with Emitter Resistor 192 --
4. four. three Circuit with Emitter-Bypass Capacitor 196 --
4. four. four complicated Common-Emitter Amplifier innovations 199 --
4. five AC Load Line research 2 hundred --
4. five. 1 AC Load Line 2 hundred --
4. five. 2 greatest Symmetrical Swing 203 --
Problem-Solving method: greatest Symmetrical Swing 204 --
4. 6 Common-Collector (Emitter-Follower) Amplifier 205 --
4. 6. 1 Small-Signal Voltage achieve 205 --
4. 6. 2 enter and Output Impedance 207 --
4. 6. three Small-Signal present achieve 209 --
4. 7 Common-Base Amplifier 214 --
4. 7. 1 Small-Signal Voltage and present profits 214 --
4. 7. 2 enter and Output Impedance 216 --
4. eight the 3 simple Amplifiers: precis and comparability 218 --
4. nine Multistage Amplifiers 219 --
4. nine. 1 Multistage research: Cascade Configuration 219 --
4. nine. 2 Cascode Configuration 223 --
4. 10 energy concerns 226 --
Chapter five The Field-Effect Transistor 243 --
5. 1 MOS Field-Effect Transistor 243 --
5. 1. 1 Two-Terminal MOS constitution 244 --
5. 1. 2 n-Channel Enhancement-Mode MOSFET 246 --
5. 1. three perfect MOSFET Current-Voltage features 248 --
5. 1. four Circuit Symbols and Conventions 253 --
5. 1. five extra MOSFET buildings and Circuit Symbols 253 --
5. 1. 6 precis of Transistor Operation 258 --
5. 1. 7 Nonideal Current-Voltage features 259 --
5. 2 MOSFET DC Circuit research 262 --
5. 2. 1 Common-Source Circuit 263 --
5. 2. 2 Load Line and Modes of Operation 267 --
Problem-Solving strategy: MOSFET DC research 268 --
5. 2. three universal MOSFET Configurations: DC research 269 --
5. 2. four Constant-Current resource Biasing 281 --
5. three simple MOSFET functions: change, electronic good judgment Gate, and Amplifier 283 --
5. three. 1 NMOS Inverter 283 --
5. three. 2 electronic good judgment Gate 285 --
5. three. three MOSFET Small-Signal Amplifier 287 --
5. four Junction Field-Effect Transistor 287 --
5. four. 1 pn JFET and MESFET Operation 288 --
5. four. 2 Current-Voltage features 292 --
5. four. three universal JFET Configurations: DC research 295 --
Chapter 6 simple FET Amplifiers 313 --
6. 1 The MOSFET Amplifier 313 --
6. 1. 1 Graphical research, Load traces, and Small-Signal Parameters 314 --
6. 1. 2 Small-Signal similar Circuit 318 --
Problem-Solving procedure: MOSFET AC research 320 --
6. 1. three Modeling the physique impact 322 --
6. 2 simple Transistor Amplifier Configurations 323 --
6. three The Common-Source Amplifier 324 --
6. three. 1 A easy Common-Source Configuration 324 --
6. three. 2 Common-Source Amplifier with resource Resistor 329 --
6. three. three Common-Source Circuit with resource skip Capacitor 331 --
6. four The Source-Follower Amplifier 334 --
6. four. 1 Small-Signal Voltage achieve 334 --
6. four. 2 enter and Output Impedance 339 --
6. five The Common-Gate Configuration 341 --
6. five. 1 Small-Signal Voltage and present profits 341 --
6. five. 2 enter and Output Impedance 343 --
6. 6 the 3 simple Amplifier Configurations: precis and comparability 345 --
6. 7 Single-Stage built-in Circuit MOSFET Amplifiers 345 --
6. 7. 1 NMOS Amplifier with Enhancement Load 345 --
6. 7. 2 NMOS Amplifier with Depletion Load 350 --
6. 7. three NMOS Amplifier with PMOS Load 353 --
6. eight Multistage Amplifiers 355 --
6. eight. 1 DC research 356 --
6. eight. 2 Small-Signal research 360 --
6. nine easy JFET Amplifiers 362 --
6. nine. 1 Small-Signal similar Circuit 362 --
6. nine. 2 Small-Signal research 364 --
Chapter 7 Frequency reaction 383 --
7. 1 Amplifier Frequency reaction 384 --
7. 1. 1 similar Circuits 384 --
7. 1. 2 Frequency reaction research 385 --
7. 2 method move capabilities 386 --
7. 2. 1 s-Domain research 386 --
7. 2. 2 First-Order features 388 --
7. 2. three Bode Plots 388 --
7. 2. four Short-Circuit and Open-Circuit Time Constants 394 --
7. three Frequency reaction: Transistor Amplifiers with Circuit Capacitors 398 --
7. three. 1 Coupling Capacitor results 398 --
Problem-Solving procedure: Bode Plot of achieve importance 404 --
7. three. 2 Load Capacitor results 405 --
7. three. three Coupling and cargo Capacitors 407 --
7. three. four skip Capacitor results 410 --
7. three. five mixed results: Coupling and skip Capacitors 414 --
7. four Frequency reaction: Bipolar Transistor 416 --
7. four. 1 improved Hybrid-[pi] identical Circuit 416 --
7. four. 2 Short-Circuit present achieve 418 --
7. four. three Cutoff Frequency 420 --
7. four. four Miller influence and Miller Capacitance 422 --
7. five Frequency reaction: The FET 426 --
7. five. 1 High-Frequency identical Circuit 426 --
7. five. 2 Unity-Gain Bandwidth 428 --
7. five. three Miller influence and Miller Capacitance 431 --
7. 6 High-Frequency reaction of Transistor Circuits 433 --
7. 6. 1 Common-Emitter and Common-Source Circuits 433 --
7. 6. 2 Common-Base, Common-Gate, and Cascode Circuits 436 --
7. 6. three Emitter- and Source-Follower Circuits 444 --
7. 6. four High-Frequency Amplifier layout 448 --
Chapter eight Output levels and tool Amplifiers 469 --
8. 1 strength Amplifiers 469 --
8. 2 strength Transistors 470 --
8. 2. 1 strength BJTs 470 --
8. 2. 2 energy MOSFETs 474 --
8. 2. three warmth Sinks 477 --
8. three sessions of Amplifiers 480 --
8. three. 1 Class-A Operation 481 --
8. three. 2 Class-B Operation 484 --
8. three. three Class-AB Operation 489 --
8. three. four Class-C Operation 493 --
8. four Class-A energy Amplifiers 494 --
8. four. 1 Inductively Coupled Amplifier 494 --
8. four. 2 Transformer-Coupled Common-Emitter Amplifier 495 --
8. four. three Transformer-Coupled Emitter-Follower Amplifier 497 --
8. five Class-AB Push-Pull Complementary Output phases 499 --
8. five. 1 Class-AB Output level with Diode Biasing 499 --
8. five. 2 Class-AB Biasing utilizing the V[subscript BE] Multiplier 501 --
8. five. three Class-AB Output degree with enter Buffer Transistors 504 --
8. five. four Class-AB Output level using the Darlington Configuration 507 --
Part II Analog Electronics 519 --
Chapter nine the suitable Operational Amplifier 521 --
9. 1 The Operational Amplifier 521 --
9. 1. 1 perfect Parameters 522 --
9. 1. 2 improvement of definitely the right Parameters 523 --
9. 1. three research approach 525 --
9. 1. four PSpice Modeling 526 --
9. 2 Inverting Amplifier 526 --
9. 2. 1 uncomplicated Amplifier 527 --
Problem-Solving method: excellent Op-Amp Circuits 529 --
9. 2. 2 Amplifier with a T-Network 530 --
9. 2. three impact of Finite achieve 532 --
9. three Summing Amplifier 534 --
9. four Noninverting Amplifier 536 --
9. four. 1 simple Amplifier 536 --
9. four. 2 Voltage Follower 537

Additional info for An Introduction to Fiber Optic Systems

Sample text

14) to be applied to some special cases of interest in this book. 2. CURRENT INJECTION DEVICE APPLYING A THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER WITH UNLOADED DELTA-CONNECTED SECONDARY WINDING The simplest form of the current injection device to analyze is the one applying a wye-delta transformer with unloaded secondary. The schematic diagram for this current injection device is presented in Fig. 4-2. The unloaded secondary forces all three of the primary currents to be equal, v1 v2 iX 1 v3 iX 2 iX 3 vN iS iY Figure 4-2.

33% S 0 . 45) The computation is simple, since the voltage across the winding with the larger number of turns equals the phase voltage, and currents in the windings are as labeled in Fig. 4-4. 46) since the voltages across the transformer windings are equal to one half of the line-to-line voltage, and the currents of the windings are as labeled in Fig. 4-4. 20% S 0 . 24). 47) is used just as an illustration, and it should not be considered an exact measure. This current injection device form might be useful in experiments, since the two single-phase transformers required to build the current injection device are readily available in almost all power electronics labs.

Current injection applying wye-wye transformer. for k ∈ {1, 2, 3}. Now, let us take a crucial approximation that Rm 0 → ∞ . 6. In the case the approximation holds, F0 = 1 (F1 + F2 + F3 ) . 119) the requirement for finite fluxes in the core limbs results in F1 = F2 = F3 = F0 . 121) which is a homogeneous system of linear equations expressed in a matrix form. 122) the system has a nontrivial solution. 123) ⎡ 2 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ i1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ iS1 ⎤ ⎢− 1 2 − 1⎥ ⎢i ⎥ = m ⎢− 1 2 − 1⎥ ⎢i ⎥ . 124) does not exist.

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