Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory by Ronald K. Hambleton, Jac. N. Zaal

By Ronald K. Hambleton, Jac. N. Zaal

Over the final two decades there were a lot of technical advances and alterations within the box of academic and mental checking out. based on Anne Anastasi, the last decade of the 1980's has been a interval of bizarre advances in ,psychological trying out. Technological growth, theoretical sophistication, and lengthening seasoned­ fessional accountability are all glaring within the fast-moving occasions during this box (A. Anastasi, mental checking out, 6th variation. long island: Macmillan, 1988). at the psychometric entrance, advances in themes comparable to merchandise reaction idea, criterion-referenced size, generalizability theory,· analy­ sis of covariance constructions, and validity generalization are reshaping the ways in which skill and success checks are developed and evaluated, and that attempt rankings are interpreted. yet \Jsychometric advances, as great and significant as they've been, are just a fragment of the foremost alterations within the box of checking out. at the present time, for instance, the pc is considerably chang­ ing the ways that checks are built, administered, and scored. desktops are getting used to manage assessments "adaptively." that's, the series of questions an examinee is run relies on his or her functionality on previous administered goods within the try out. exams are "adapted" to the power degrees of the examinees who're being assessed. One result's shorter exams with very little loss in dimension precision. desktops also are getting used to shop or financial institution try goods. Later, goods of curiosity will be chosen, and the pc is used to print copies of the test.

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Educational measurement, 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan. ADVANCES IN CRITERION-REFERENCED MEASUREMENT 41 Livingston, S. A. (1975). A utility-based approach to the evaluation of pass/fail testing decision procedures (Report No. COPA-75-01). Princeton, NJ: Center for Occupational and Professional Assessment, Educational Testing Service. - - - - . (1976). Choosing minimum passing scores by stochastic approximation techniques (Report No. COPA-76-02). Princeton, NJ: Center for Occupational and Professional Assessment, Educational Testing Service.

At present, research is still under way on (1) methods for setting standards, (2) formats for reporting scores to maximize test score usefulness, and (3) approaches for describing objectives. New studies that offer potential for the improvement of criterion-referenced testing practices include_ (1) research on microcomputers for storing, administering, and scoring tests and (2) studies with item response models for developing continuous growth or developmental scales to which objectives, test items, and examinees can be referenced.

12. Do the test directions address important information such as test purpose, scoring, time limits, the standard(s), and marking answer sheets (or test booklets)? 13. Are the time limits sufficient for examinees to complete the test? 14. Are the test administrator's directions complete so as to insure a proper test administration? 15. Are the print size, quality of printing and artwork, and page. layouts appropriate for the examinees? ADVANCES IN CRITERION-REFERENCED MEASUREMENT 37 16. Are the reliability and validity studies conducted with sufficientsized samples of examinees for whom the test is intended?

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