By George Emery, Herbert Emery
Read or Download A Young Man’s Benefit: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Sickness Insurance in the United States and Canada, 1860-1929 PDF
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Extra resources for A Young Man’s Benefit: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Sickness Insurance in the United States and Canada, 1860-1929
Nineteenth-century official histories of the IOOF anticipate one or other of these interpretations. According to Ross, the IOOF retained the artisan flavour of its British parent order in 1890. American Odd Fellowship was "composed of the great middle, industrial classes al- 32. A Young Man's Benefit most exclusively" (Ross, 1890). In contrast, Stillson noted a change during the 18405. " But by the 18405, he argues, "the Order was finding its way into every department of business and employment.
The insurance claims in small groups may fluctuate from year to year. Thus the smaller the group, the greater the danger that high claims in one year could ruin the insurer. Conversely, the larger the insured group, the smoother the trend for sick claims. Thus a friendly society could diversify its risks by paying claims from a central fund rather than separate funds for each of its lodges. Alternatively, the society could adopt a scheme of reinsurance, whereby each lodge is partly liable for claims that the other lodges incurred.
From the church's perennial concern about secret societies, she infers that Roman Catholics were joining them before 1880 (Clawson, 1989, 130). She cites the suppression of German-language lodges in the Knights of Pythias during the 18905 for evidence that fraternal nativism helped to drive Roman Catholics out of secret societies. Her evidence does not show, however, whether the German Knights were Roman Catholics. Developments in the Forester orders tend to support Clawson's interpretation. In 1879 Catholic members quit the Independent Order of Foresters (IOF) to form the Massachusetts Catholic Order of Foresters.