By Mohan Seneviratne
And trade use tremendous quantities of water, and in a few components of the area water is turning into a scarce commodity. This publication is a 'best perform' handbook for water conservation for commercial and advertisement clients world-wide. It deals a realistic account of the measures that are taken to re-educate business and advertisement clients within the suggestions of water saving and re-use - anyplace on the earth.
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Additional info for A Practical Approach to Water Conservation for Commercial and Industrial Facilities
These reactions are shown below. 5, alkalinity is a combination of H2 CO3 and HCO3 − . As the pH increases, the HCO3 − ion becomes the dominant ion. 4 there is no more free CO2 gas left – and all alkalinity is in the form of HCO3 − ion and the more alkaline CO3 2− ion. 6, no HCO3 − is present and all alkalinity is in the form of the CO3 2− ion. 6. � The total alkalinity of water = HCO3 − + CO3 2− + OH− concentrations. 2 shows how the pH of a solution dictates the form of alkalinity that will be dominant in the solution.
For under deposit corrosion to occur. For this reason, total bacterial counts are closely monitored to minimise fouling. Bacteria that cause corrosion of metals are referred to as ‘microbiologically inﬂuenced corrosion’ (MIC). Both Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) such as Desulfovibrio sp. and Clostridium sp. belong to the MIC group. The SRB uses the conversion of iron-to-iron oxide to create energy. Clostridium sp. excretes hydrogen ions, which react with water to form strong organic acids. The common result is pits in the surface of the metal that are hidden under tubercles of iron oxide.
P. 23–24. 20 A Practical Approach to Water Conservation Case Study A smallgoods manufacturer in Sydney, Australia, estimated that while the water costs are only A$1 20/m3 , the actual cost of water (once internal chemical treatment, wastewater treatment and sewer discharges were included) was A$6 00/m3 – a ﬁvefold increase in costs. These costs are not easily recognisable because they come under different accounts. In addition to direct production-related costs, there are other compliance costs.