A manual of radioactivity, by Georg von Hevesy

By Georg von Hevesy

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The steeper the downward slope of the above-mentioned absorption curve, the more easily are the rays absorbed, and the smaller is the value of the half-value thickness. e. different absorption coefficients. Thus the jS-rays from KaB exhibit the absorption coeffi- cients 13, 77, and 890 when they are passed through aluminium. The absorption coefficients of different j3-rays in aluminium are given in Table 9. TABLE 9 Absorption Coefficients of different ft- Rays When the absorption coefficient is small, the half-value thickness is the penetrating power is large; for this reason such rays are large, also called 'hard', in contradistinction to the easily absorbed 'soft' rays.

G. a surface coated with polonium, near a zinc-sulphide screen, the latter is found to become 2. luminescent under the action of the rays. On gradually removing the preparation, the luminescence of the screen suddenly ceases at a distance of the radioactive film from the screen which in this case amounts to 3-87 cm. ). also disappear at the The ionizingf and all other actions of the rays same distance (cf. however, the remarks on p. 28). , we still find that the preparation produces an effect on the electroscope.

These questions are discussed in greater detail on p. 101. Each line in the magnetic line spectrum of -rays (cf. Fig, 17, Plate I) corresponds to a homogeneous It may to rays of definite velocity. When we investigate the abwe obtain graphs that are sorption of such a ^-radiation in aluminium almost straight lines, at least in the earlier stages of absorption. Fig. e. 0-9 a-o Energy in W 5 Vo/fa FiG. 16. Energy Distribution in the Continuous j3-Ray Spoctrum of Various Radio- elements. shows the absorption of /6-rays having a velocity of 0*83 that of light.

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