By Mary N. Arai (auth.)
Scyphozoa have attracted the eye of many varieties of individuals. Naturalists watch their sleek locomotion. Fishermen may perhaps dread the swarms which may hinder fishing or consume larval fish. Bathers retreat from the water in the event that they are stung. humans from a few Asiatic nations devour the medusae. Comparative physiologists study them as in all likelihood basic versions for the functioning of assorted platforms. This booklet integrates info from these and different investigations right into a sensible biology of scyphozoa. it's going to emphasize the wide variety of adaptive responses attainable in those morphologically rather uncomplicated animals. The e-book will be aware of the examine of the final 35 years, partially simply because there was a speedy enlargement of data in the course of that interval, and partially simply because a lot of the former paintings used to be summarized through books released among 1961 and 1970. Bibliographies of papers on scyphozoa have been integrated in Mayer (1910) and Kramp (1961). Taxonomic diagnoses also are integrated in these monographs, in addition to in a monograph at the scyphomedusae of the USSR released by means of Naumov (Naumov, 1961). such a lot impor tantly, a genenttion of scyphozoan staff has used as its 'bible' the monograph via F.S.Russell (1970) The Medusae of the British Isles. despite its restrictive name, his publication reports many of the details at the biology of scyphozoa as much as that date.
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Additional info for A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa
At the intersections synapses form so that each neuron forms numerous synapses with different cells. The synapses can occur on any part of the cell, including the cell body. e. 12). 13) (Anderson and Grunert, 1988). 12 Synapse between two neurons of the motor nerve net of Cyanea capillata. The limits of the synapse are indicated with arrows. Note that vesicles occur on both sides of the synapse. 2 11m. (Source: Anderson and Schwab, 1981. A. V. ) It is possible to record from both the cells involved in a MNN synapse and to verify that the synapses transmit in either direction.
Er =endoplasmic reticulum; m = mitochondrion; mv = microvillus; n = nucleus; ne = neurites of receptor cells I and III; ne' = neurite of receptor cell II; r = rootlet; stc = stereocilium; sj = septate junction; sc = sensory cilium; v = vacuole; wf = whorled myelin figure. (Source: Hiindgen and Biela, 1982, with permission of M. , 1974). 8). The particular function of each of these cell types has not been identified. Similar sensory cells with motile cilia are present on the rhopalia of ephyrae prior to the development of the touch plate (Spangenberg, 1991).
1976a). Radial swimming muscles are, however, poorly developed in Chrysaora melanaster and P. noctiluca (see Gladfelter, 1973). In the nonswimming Stauromedusae the coronal muscle is reduced to a narrow marginal band and radial subumbrellar muscles are present proximally (Gwilliam, 1960). Elsewhere in medusae there are longitudinal oriented myofibrils in the epidermal epitheliomuscular cells of the tentacles (Perkins, Ramsey and Street, 1971; Westfall, 1973). Similar longitudinal muscle may also be present in manubria and oral arms.