This quantity explores greater than centuries of literature at the First women, from Martha Washington to Michelle Obama, delivering the 1st historiographical review of those vital girls in U.S. historical past.
• Underlines the becoming scholarly appreciation of the 1st girls and the evolution of the placement because the 18th century
• Explores the influence of those ladies not just on White home tasks, yet on elections, presidential guidelines, social explanations, and in shaping their husbands' legacies
• Brings the 1st girls into crisp historiographical concentration, assessing how those ladies and their contributions were perceived either in renowned literature and scholarly debate
• offers concise biographical remedies for every First woman
Read or Download A Companion to First Ladies (Wiley Blackwell Companions to American History) PDF
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Extra info for A Companion to First Ladies (Wiley Blackwell Companions to American History)
20 WORLD BANK WORKING PAPER is clear that urban users (often the richer relatives of the rural users) will pay most of the calling costs. 15 In non-CPP environments, asymmetric interconnection would still be beneficial, because it is more sociably desirable for the higher costs of rural cell deployment to be borne through interconnection payments (and ultimately by urban-to-rural callers who can afford to pay a higher tariff) than by the rural network users. 16 Should There be a Distinction Between Individual Users and “Fixed-Mobile” Public Access Phones?
05) per minute. The impact of the substantial license fees paid by mobile operators (which fixed operators do not usually have to pay) also has, of course, to be considered in this particular case. 22 WORLD BANK WORKING PAPER In any case, even if not included, this should not preclude mobile operators’ advance into rural areas and their bidding for universal access subsidies, because capital subsidies may still be justified and be an efficient means to leverage and accelerate new cell deployment in unreached areas of the country.
Telecommunications Challenges in Developing Countries: Asymmetric Interconnection Charges for Rural Areas is part of the World Bank Working Paper series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank’s ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. Telecommunications Challenges in Developing Countries This report addresses an important aspect of interconnection—the settings of call termination charges. In rural telecommunications, network costs are known to be high. The traditional consensus has been that many rural areas cannot be connected without subsidies.