By F. Thompson
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D. Department of English University of Nebraska ISBN 0-8220-0899-8 � Copyright 1984 by Cliffs Notes, Inc. A. , and may not be used in whole or in part without written permission. Cliffs Notes, Inc. Lincoln, Nebraska Page 3 Contents Orwell's Life and Career 5 1984 and Anti-Utopian Fiction 7 Brief Synopsis 10 List of Characters 11 Chapter Commentaries Part One Chapters 12 12 Chapters 35 13 Chapters 68 14 Part Two Chapters 12 16 Chapters 34 17 Chapters 58 18 Chapters 910 19 Part Three Chapters 12 20 Chapters 35 21 Chapter 6 22 Appendix 22 Character Analyses Winston Smith 23 Julia 25 O'Brien 27 Big Brother/Emmanuel Goldstein 29 A Critical Question 31 Alienation in 1984 36 Love in 1984 39 Page 4 Plot, Style, and Structure 42 Humanity and Society in 1984 47 Key Quotations in 1984 50 1984 Game Page and Essay Topics 52 Selected Bibliography 53 Page 5 Orwell's Life and Career George Orwell, whose real name was Eric Blair, was born in 1903, in Bengal, India, the son of a minor official in the Indian Civil Service.
O'Brien presents this idea of reality in such a way that Winston finds it hard to believe, except that O'Brien is in the position to force him to by means of torture. Page 22 This view of reality is closely connected with the idea of the alternate past and the control of historical records. An instance of the Party's creating of reality is the simple addition problem which Winston earlier made into a symbol of freedom and which O'Brien turns into a symbol of rehabilitation. Later, Winston attempts to train himself in the process of doublethink.
Julia, like Winston, contains certain paradoxes which offset and complement the ideas that Winston embraces. For example, she is not intellectual, but she is just as capable as a man when opposing the Party's objectives. But, conversely, just as Winston fails to completely understand the Party, Julia also fails to perceive the danger that the Party's intellectual repression and historical rewriting represent to a normal world. Her tacit acceptance of Party history is a victory in and of itself to the Party.