By Jacobs K., Keane M.
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Tolkien’s Quenya is no exception; this language actually has quite restrictive rules for how consonants and vowels can be combined into syllables and longer words. Even so, consonant clusters are quite common, but they are not distributed as “freely” as in English. While English and for that matter Sindarin allow consonant clusters at the beginning of words, Quenya does not (SD:417–418). A word like scream, commencing with a cluster of no less than three consonants, would be quite impossible in Quenya.
Moreover, because of Tolkien’s frequent revisions you can’t even be sure that all the pieces you do find belong to the same puzzle at all. Some clearly do not fit and can be ignored; many other fall in the category of “doubtful”, and you don’t really know what to do with them. In this course I will mention some of the variations and present my hopefully qualified guesses as to what we should accept as authoritative and what is probably best ignored. Indeed, due to the general lack of explicit grammatical information from Tolkien, I will not always present Quenya grammar with confidence and authority; rather you will often see me review whatever evidence is available and try to make out some rules that we can follow when putting together our own Quenya compositions.
But precisely what symbol he used is somewhat variable. Sometimes he uses a macron, a short horizontal line above the vowel; this is especially common in the Etymologies and certain other “philological” writings. g. ˆ o in the word fˆ olima “secretive” from the earliest “Qenya” dictionary (LT2:340/QL:38). But in LotR and most sources postdating it, Tolkien typically uses a normal accent to indicate vowel-length, and so will we here: long ´ a, ´ e, ´ı, ´ o, u ´ as opposed to short a, e, i, o, u.